Additional Papers

"Disturbing reports of sexual assaults in the metaverse: ‘It’s a free show’"

Media type: News article

Author: Adriana Diaz (New York Post)

Summary: The article highlights how virtual environments, which offer a sense of anonymity and detachment from reality, have become spaces where individuals engage in inappropriate behavior, including sexual harassment and assault. It discusses specific cases of victims who have encountered such incidents and the challenges they face in seeking justice or protection. It also delves into the lack of regulations and safeguards in virtual spaces, and the need for platforms and communities to address and prevent such misconduct.

Key takeaways:

  • Though technology has become an integral part of our lives, our brains are still not trained to distinguish between real and virtual stimuli. Therefore we experience the same emotions on an online space as an offline space (e.g. the same feeling of rejection is experienced when we are not validated by an online peer group as compared to an offline peer group).

  • Therefore, a woman gang-raped in the Metaverse would result in the experience feeling very real - as confirmed by the victim in the news article too: "It happened so fast I kind of disassociated. One part of my brain was like ‘WTF is happening,’ the other part was like ‘this isn’t a real body,’ and another part was like, ‘this is important research,’ ”

  • No actions are taken by governing body (brand-owned spaces, Meta, Apple). There were no consequences for the attackers. In fact, Meta dismissed the issue saying that the safety feature should not have been turned off which was actually a conflict in their messaging since they promote new people socializing through their mission statement.

  • 83% of MV users are under age 18, so not having a governing ethical body can lead to hypersexualiation of avatars, which when embodied by adolescents results in them imbibing their avatar traits and restrictions

Citation: Diaz, A. (2022, May 27). Disturbing reports of sexual assaults in the metaverse: ‘It’s a free show’. New York Post. Retrieved June 6, 2023, from

"Child Grooming and the Metaverse – Issues and Solutions"

Media type: Blog article

Author: Sameer Hinduja (Cyberbullying Research Center)

Summary: The article discusses concerns about child sexual exploitation and grooming in the metaverse, particularly among younger populations. It emphasizes the need for proactive and reactive measures to address these issues. The article suggests implementing reporting mechanisms, age-gating, user verification, content moderation, and clear guidelines. It also highlights the importance of user education, in-app safety features, and third-party blocklists. The safety and protection of young users in the metaverse are crucial considerations.

Key takeaways:

  • throughThe Metaverse is especially alluring to teenagers and adolescents because psychologically, they are at that stage of growth where they want to explore impulsiveness and risk-taking and be validated by a peer network outside of their families. At this stage, teenagers typically want to try on different "adult versions" of themselves to see which role they identify with the most in a social ecosystem. The most important part of this learning stage is feedback, where the amount of impulsiveness or "Id" behaviors they would wish to finally inculcate into their personality is also highly dependent on the feedback from the society. The intrinsic structure of the Metaverse allows teens to explore their impulses by hiding behind an avatar without having to bear shame, guilt, or regret for doing something wrong or embarrassing in a social setting. Since there is no governing body that can give feedback on their 'id' behaviors, it is natural for people to experience an increased amount of openness, higher risk-taking, and lesser fear of judgment in the Metaverse. This can lead to people assuming new roles of lesser ages (like adults assuming the roles of teens) through online grooming so that they can explore their impulsive side and attribute it to the socially accepted stereotype that it is 'normal' for teens to behave that way.

  • Not only is the intrinsic structure of the Metaverse to be blamed for this but also individual factors in the microsystem of the user, that leads to online grooming. For e.g., those who suffer from emotional distress or mental health problems, low self-esteem, poor parental relationships, and weak family cohesion are seen to have a higher predisposition to attempt online grooming or catfishing.

  • "Meta recently released new supervision tools in June 2022 so that parents and guardians can better control what their teen downloads, plays or experiences via the Quest headset, view their teen’s list of Friends, and monitor headset screentime use".

    • This means that organizations like Meta literally have data stored about which family has children, and of an age where the parents are able to use parental controls and have enough information on their friends to create a buzz about new products in the child's peer network and record what the child has been doing through the Quest headset and the time spent. For the end-user (which is the child), giving away that information to an authority figure that can uphold them for the consequences of their virtual actions is a breach of trust because they were marketed the Metaverse as an exploratory space without consequence. This is also metaphorical of what happens in the industry, where brands like Meta and Microsoft are marketing the Metaverse as a place of no consequence and then selling the data for marketing more products based on the consumers' virtual behavior, which literally is a consequence.

Citation: Hinduja, S. (n.d.). Child grooming and the Metaverse – Issues and solutions. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved June 12, 2023, from

Physiological and Psychological effects of XR

"A virtual safe space? An approach of intersectionality and social identity to behavior in virtual environments"

Media type: Journal article

Author: Kata Szita (Trinity College Dublin, Ireland)

Summary: This paper examines how users' identities are shaped by customization options, community norms, and the influence of avatars as expressions of virtual identities. It throws light on social VR as a "safe space" for experimenting with online personas, highlighting the need for further research on the relationship between body representation, identity, demographic characteristics, and social behavior. The findings affect digital culture, online behavior, and social justice.

Key takeaways:

  • Metaverse interactions are getting integrated into identity because it provides a space for escape from real-world frustration about our self-image and allows us to be our "ideal self" in an extended or virtual reality

Citation: Szita, K. (2022). A virtual safe space? An approach of intersectionality and social identity to behavior in virtual environments. Journal of Digital Social Research, 4(3), 34-55.

"Who Do You Think You Are? What Does Your Avatar Say About You?"

Media type: Blog article

Author: Thomas Deane (TCD)

Summary: Digital avatars serve as more than just a means of artistic expression; they also facilitate both conformity and escapism. These virtual representations significantly impact our interactions with others, ultimately influencing our acceptance or exclusion from social circles

Key takeaways:

  • Humans are neurobiologically incapable right now to differentiate between real-world and virtual stimuli. Therefore, anything 'good' in the MV makes us feel good, while anything 'harmful' in the MV makes us feel at threat.

  • Avatar embodiment reflects what we want to see ourselves as - e.g., better socio-economic status, non-binary genders, and different age representation.

  • This has implications related to brand messaging: since brands own the MV lands, the users will adopt the brand's values, therefore their perception of 'right' and 'wrong' depends heavily on the brand's beliefs. This can be harmful since there is no regulatory legal/ethical body in place right now.

Citation: Deane, T. (2022, September 22). Who do you think you are? What does your avatar say about you? Neuroscience News. Retrieved June 5, 2023, from

"The psychological impact of the Metaverse"

Media type: Research paper

Author: Patrick Henz (Risk and Compliance & Author, Atlanta, USA)

Summary: This paper describes the Metaverse as a network of interconnected virtual worlds that offer immersive experiences, continuity of data, and interoperability. It is anticipated that the Metaverse will have both professional and private applications, ranging from virtual meetings and learning platforms to leisure activities and social interactions. The paper discusses the blurring of boundaries between the physical and virtual realities, the socialization process within the Metaverse, and the potential for AI humanization. It also addresses the phenomenon of cocooning (tendency of individuals to retreat into their private virtual spaces, disconnecting from the physical world and limiting their social interactions to the virtual realm) and the shift from physical to virtual experiences.

Key takeaway:

  • Humanization of AI is resulting in social interactions of humans becoming one-sided emotional investments.

  • Avatars have a ""halo effect"" which leads to increased trust on AI that can provide unconditional attention. Such form of unconditional attention is impossible to receive by a human being and may lead to the consequence that users who spend a longer time with such VR may become unable for developing sustainable relationships with other humans, especially if they already before lacked social skills

  • Therefore individuals' relationship expectations with family, partners and brands becomes unnaturally high - humans would always need to be stimulated in a relationship (especially because of high-stimulation gamification virtually), making it more difficult for them to spend time with just themselves"

Citation: Henz, P. (2022). The psychological impact of the Metaverse. Discover Psychology, 2(1).

"Reinventing yourself in the Metaverse through digital identity"

Media type: Blog article

Author: Rachel Wolfson (Cointelegraph)

Summary: The article discusses how individuals can redefine and shape their identities in the virtual realm, allowing for greater self-expression and exploration. The author highlights potential benefits and challenges of digital identity, emphasizing the importance of privacy, security, and authenticity in creating a meaningful virtual persona. It also delves into the role of technologies like blockchain in enabling secure and verifiable digital identities.

Key takeaways:

  • Web3 allows more 'free' interactions than Web2, which leads to humans being able to do offendable things without having to bear the consequences.

  • Given that most users are adolescents and youth, this can severely impact their identity since psychologically this is the stage of identity and moral development.

  • More emotional attachment imposed on digital items and assets than people.

  • Socio-culturally this can lead to more extremism and polarization of 'right' and 'wrong' resulting in more hate-crimes, cyberbullying and cybercrimes.

Citation: Wolfson, R. (2022, August 11). Reinventing yourself in the Metaverse through digital identity. Cointelegraph. Retrieved June 6, 2023, from

"Time to Think “Meta”: A Critical Viewpoint on the Risks and Benefits of Virtual Worlds for Mental Health"

Media type: Research paper

Author: Vincent Paquin (Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CA; Lady Davis Research Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, CA; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, CA); Manuela Ferrari (Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CA; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, CA), Harmehr Sekhon (Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CA; Lady Davis Research Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, CA; McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, US); Soham Rej (Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CA; Lady Davis Research Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, CA; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, CA)

Summary: Positive effects of the Metaverse include control, cognitive activation, physical activity, social connections, and a sense of autonomy and competence. However, addiction-like behaviors and avoidance of real-life challenges are potential risks. Time spent in the metaverse may displace other determinants of mental health, such as sleep patterns and offline social capital. Individual differences, such as motivations, developmental stage, and prior mental health, influence the effects. It is crucial for researchers, clinicians, and individuals to collaborate in studying the metaverse's impact on mental health to inform policy-making and counseling.

Key takeaways:

  • While VR is used for therapy in elevating mood (Riches et al., 2021), reducing anxiety and stress levels in the short term, any stressors in VR can actually result in higher levels of subjective distress and paranoia (Veling et al., 2016).

  • Virtual worlds provide users with the ability to choose their avatar's appearance and identity, which can significantly impact how they perceive and engage with their virtual surroundings. Research involving regular video game users indicated that a stronger sense of embodiment with an avatar was linked to reduced awareness of bodily sensations during gaming sessions. Another study involving a group of women from the UK found that decreasing avatar height in a virtual reality game resulted in heightened levels of paranoia and negative social comparison.

  • Engaging in self-exploration and representation in virtual spaces may play a role in the development of social competence, particularly during adolescence. Some experts suggest that conducting identity experiments online could aid in the maturation of social skills. However, excessive investment in self-representation in virtual environments may also lead to negative consequences, such as dissatisfaction with one's physical body. Similar risks have been observed in studies on social media use, where individuals' strong emphasis on seeking feedback on their self-portraits and comparing themselves to others' photographs can contribute to body dissatisfaction and a desire for thinness.

Citation: Paquin, V., Ferrari, M., Sekhon, H., & Rej, S. (2023). Time to think “Meta”: A critical viewpoint on the risks and benefits of virtual worlds for mental health. JMIR Serious Games, 11, e43388.

"Future of mental health in the metaverse"

Media type: Research paper

Author: Sadia Suhail Usmani (Department of Psychiatry, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan; Department of Medicine, Insight Hospital & Medical Center Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA), Medha Sharath (Department of Psychiatry, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore, Karnataka, India), Meghana Mehendale (Department of Psychiatry, Smolensk State Medical University, Smolensk, Russian Federation)

Summary: VR, AR and MR have been used in the diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders, showing positive results. These technologies have been seen as a solution to the shortage of mental health professionals and limited access to mental healthcare. However, excessive use of immersive games and social media can have negative effects on mental health (Addiction-like behaviors, Social isolation, Avoidance of real-life challenges, Displacement of offline activities, Insecurity, anxiety, and depression, Attention and cognitive issues).

Key takeaways:

  • The paper cite the concept of the "Proteus effect" which suggests that individuals who invest significant time and effort into crafting their virtual identities tend to adopt the qualities and physical attributes associated with their virtual selves. This, in turn, can lead to notable changes in their behavior.

  • The concept of the Proteus effect was first introduced by Nick Yee and Jeremy Bailenson in 2007. Their research focused on the impact of avatar appearance on individuals' behavior in virtual environments. They found that when people represented themselves with attractive or powerful avatars, they tended to exhibit more confident and assertive behavior. Conversely, when individuals used avatars that were less physically attractive or less socially desirable, they displayed more introverted and submissive behaviors. Usually, people do this with brands, where they try to "hide" behind a brand or use it to protect themselves like an armor because they feel that they are not enough. Having an attractive avatar with brand symbols makes them feel confident about being accepted in a virtual peer network.

Citation: Usmani, S. S., Sharath, M., & Mehendale, M. (2022). Future of mental health in the metaverse. General Psychiatry, 35(4), e100825.

"The dark version of the Metaverse can strip you off your identity"

Media type: Blog article

Author: Arti (

Summary: The article discusses security risks in the metaverse, focusing on augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR). Identity theft and privacy concerns are highlighted, as hackers could exploit AR devices and collect personal data. The immersive nature of the metaverse also poses risks, especially for children who may struggle to differentiate between the real and virtual worlds. The article emphasizes the need for strict security measures to protect users' identities and privacy in the metaverse.

Key takeaways:

  • Identity theft is already a multibillion-dollar industry (approximately US$24 billion), where attackers catfish people by using their data to make online transactions or do other things that the victim would have to suffer consequences for.

  • Victims have claimed feelings of loss, helplessness, anger, isolation, betrayal, rage, and even embarrassment. For some, it was equivalent to trauma and resulted in PTSD-like symptoms. This is interesting because our basic need for safety is what is at cost here, which in an offline world is understandable because our identity is something we have built all our lives. However, in a virtual world, our identity is acquired because we embody a pre-made avatar. A feeling of loss and trauma for identity theft in the Metaverse is a huge signal that by embodying an avatar, we experience almost a 'soul' transfer in a new body altogether, and a feeling of loss of security even in a virtual world could result in it permanently changing parts of our identity that we bring back to the real world.

Citation: Arti. (2022, June 16). The dark version of Metaverse can strip you off your identity. Analytics Insight. Retrieved June 20, 2023, from

"Post VR Sadness: My First Experience with a VR Hangover"

Media type: YouTube video (consumer experience)

Author: Marc Freccero (25.6K subscribers)

Consumer's reaction about experiencing VR hangover/post VR sadness
  • VR sadness, also known as "VR hangover" or "post-VR sadness," refers to a phenomenon where individuals experience negative emotions or feelings of sadness, disorientation, or unease after using virtual reality (VR) technology. It is an emerging concept associated with the use of immersive VR experiences.

  • VR sadness can occur due to various factors. One possible explanation is the disconnect between the virtual world and real-life experiences. When users spend a significant amount of time in a virtual environment that provides a heightened sense of presence and immersion, returning to the real world can feel mundane or disappointing. This contrast between the virtual and real can lead to a sense of disorientation or unease, which may manifest as feelings of sadness.

  • Another contributing factor to VR sadness may be the potential for motion sickness or simulator sickness. Some individuals may experience discomfort, dizziness, or nausea during or after using VR, which can impact their mood and well-being.

  • Additionally, the content and nature of the VR experience itself can influence the emotional response. If the virtual environment or content triggers negative emotions, fear, or anxiety, it can contribute to post-VR sadness.

  • It is important to note that not everyone experiences VR sadness, and the intensity and duration of these feelings can vary among individuals. Factors such as individual susceptibility, the duration of VR use, and the content being experienced can all play a role in determining the likelihood and severity of post-VR sadness.

  • To mitigate VR sadness, it is recommended to gradually transition from the virtual environment back to reality, allowing time for adjustment. Taking breaks during VR sessions and ensuring proper hydration can also help reduce the likelihood of experiencing negative emotions afterward. Additionally, developers and designers of VR experiences can consider creating content that is emotionally balanced and provides a smoother transition between the virtual and real world.

Citation: Marc Freccero. (2017, March 12). Post VR Sadness: My First Experience with a VR Hangover [Video]. YouTube.

"How Virtual Reality Affects The Brain (Part 1)"

Media Type: YouTube video

Author: The ScienceVerse

VR affecting memory and spatial cognition

Key takeaways:

  • Lesser and more random neuron firing in the hippocampus (memory and spatial computing) when in VR than when in real world, implying that the hippocampus did not know where they are in a virtual world

Citation: The ScienceVerse. (2016, July 10). How Virtual Reality Affects The Brain (Part 1) [Video]. YouTube.

"48 Hours in the Metaverse"

Media type: Indie Documentary

Author/Creator: Briar Prestidge

Summary: "48 Hours in the Metaverse" is a documentary that explores the immersive virtual world and its impact on society. Over a span of 48 hours, individuals delve into the metaverse, experiencing its diverse communities, technological advancements, and ethical considerations. From entertainment and commerce to personal connections, the film offers a glimpse into the possibilities and challenges of this emerging digital realm. Thought-provoking and captivating, it raises questions about digital identity, privacy, and the blending of virtual and physical worlds, providing a window into the future of human interaction.

Key takeaways:

  • Initial attraction in the VR - socializing and awe of exploring a new world

  • In creating the avatar, we need to choose from ready-made symbols that we can customize our avatars with. Briar too was forced to be in the body of a male in one the Meta lands, when she was interacting with other avatars. Had the embodiment been longer, there is a possibility that she would have started identifying with her male avatar, leading to more male-like identity traits

Citation: Briar Prestidge. (2023). 48 Hours in the Metaverse [Official Documentary] [Video]. YouTube.

Industry news/implications

"A Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the Use of 3-D Virtual Worlds in Clinical Psychology"

Media type: Journal article

Author: Alessandra Gorini (Applied Technology for Neuro-Psychology Lab, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy; Research Institute Brain and Behaviour, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands), Andrea Gaggioli (Applied Technology for Neuro-Psychology Lab, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy, Psychology Department, Catholic University of Milan, Milan, Italy), Cinzia Vigna (Applied Technology for Neuro-Psychology Lab, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy), Giuseppe Riva (Applied Technology for Neuro-Psychology Lab, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy; Psychology Department, Catholic University of Milan, Milan, Italy)

Summary: The paper explores how virtual environments can be leveraged to enhance therapeutic interventions, provide training for clinicians, and improve patient outcomes. The authors discuss various applications of virtual worlds, such as exposure therapy, social skills training, and virtual reality-assisted treatments. They highlight the advantages of immersive experiences, accessibility, and customization options offered by these platforms.

Key takeaway:

Citation: Gorini, A., Gaggioli, A., Vigna, C., & Riva, G. (2008). A second life for eHealth: Prospects for the use of 3-D virtual worlds in clinical psychology. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 10(3), e21.

"Let's connect in Metaverse. Brand's new destination to increase consumers' affective brand engagement and their satisfaction and advocacy"

Media type: Journal article

Author: Yousra Bousba (Rabat Business School, International University of Rabat, Morocco), Vikas Arya (Rabat Business School, International University of Rabat, Morocco)

Summary: The paper explores the concept of utilizing the Metaverse as a new destination for brands to enhance consumers' emotional connection with their brand, increase satisfaction, and encourage advocacy. It delves into the potential benefits of leveraging the immersive nature of the Metaverse to create meaningful brand experiences that foster stronger consumer engagement. The paper highlights the importance of establishing a presence in the Metaverse and emphasizes the potential impact it can have on enhancing consumers' overall brand experience, leading to increased satisfaction and advocacy among customers.

Key takeaway:

  • Consumer-brand relationships become more transactional in the Metaverse because of the gamification of brand offerings - like "earning" the product keeps consumer more hooked, increases brand allure, and makes consumers more loyal to the brand.

  • As of now, virtual prizes are not translated into real-world prizes, so consumers don't have the flexibility to choose how to spend their brand benefits.

  • An important ethical consideration here: since there is no governing body right now for the Metaverse, brands can exploit this by gamifying their offerings a little too much - though it keeps consumers hooked, it also reinforces the idea of "earning" a reward instead of simply purchasing it - which in the long run can result in lesser brand loyalty if consumers don't feel validated by the brand.

Citation: Bousba, Y., & Arya, V. (2022). Let's connect in Metaverse. Brand's new destination to increase consumers' affective brand engagement & Their satisfaction and advocacy. Journal of Content Community and Communication, 15(8), 276-293.

"Extended Reality (XR) Ethics in Medicine"

Media type: Industry report

Author: IEEE

Summary: The report examines the ethical implications of XR technologies, such as virtual reality and augmented reality, in the medical field. It addresses privacy, informed consent, data security, and responsible usage of XR in healthcare. The report offers recommendations to ensure the ethical development, deployment, and regulation of XR applications for medical purposes.

Citation: Evans, J. (2022). Extended Reality (XR) Ethics in Medicine (STDVA25230). IEEE Standards Association.

"Extended Reality (XR) Ethics in Education"

Media type: Industry report

Author: IEEE

Summary: The IEEE report on Extended Reality (XR) Ethics in Medicine examines the ethical implications of XR technologies, such as virtual reality and augmented reality, in the medical field. It addresses privacy, informed consent, data security, and responsible usage of XR in healthcare. The report offers recommendations to ensure the ethical development, deployment, and regulation of XR applications for medical purposes.

Citation: Mangina, E. (n.d.). Extended Reality (XR) Ethics in Education (STDVA25107). IEEE Standards Association.

"Ethical Considerations of Extended Reality (XR)"

Media type: Blog article

Author: IEEE

Summary: This report covers diverse areas such as privacy, identity rights, online safety, education, medicine, diversity, inclusion, accessibility, and business/economics, these papers provide insights and recommendations from experts worldwide. They address concerns related to privacy, user safety, equity, and responsible development and usage of XR. The papers aim to guide policymakers, industry professionals, and researchers in promoting ethical practices and regulations in the rapidly advancing field of XR.

Citation: Chang, M. (2023, January 6). Ethical considerations of extended reality (XR). IEEE Standards Association. Retrieved July 14, 2023, from

"E3XR: An Analytical Framework for Ethical, Educational and Eudaimonic XR Design"

Media type: Journal article

Author: Joey J. Lee, Elliot Hu-Au

Summary: The paper introduces a framework for designing XR experiences that are ethical, educational, and promote well-being. The framework emphasizes the incorporation of ethical principles, educational goals, and the enhancement of human flourishing in XR design. It provides guidelines to create XR experiences that positively impact learning, personal growth, and overall well-being.

Citation: Lee, J. J., & Hu-Au, E. (2021). E3XR: An analytical framework for ethical, educational and Eudaimonic XR design. Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 2.

"Morals of Algorithms - Ethics of AI systems - NXP whitepaper"

Media type: Journal article

Author: NXP

Summary: The paper discusses the ethical considerations surrounding AI systems. The paper presents an AI ethical framework that addresses the principles of transparency, accountability, fairness, and privacy in AI. It highlights the need to incorporate ethical considerations into the development and deployment of AI technologies and emphasizes the importance of responsible AI practices. The white paper serves as a guide for organizations and individuals involved in the development and use of AI systems.

Citation: NXP. (2020). The Morals of Algorithms: A contribution to the ethics of AI systems (AIETHICSWP REV 3).

"Ethical Risks in the Cross Section of Extended Reality (XR), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and Artificial Intelligence (AI)"

Media type: Book chapter

Author: Monika Manolova

Summary: The intersection of artificial intelligence, extended reality, and geographic information systems poses ethical risks in two categories: environmental and user-centric interactions. AI's impact on extended reality and its use of geodata can alter experiences. Regulatory frameworks are evolving to protect user rights, but the rapid growth of immersive technologies requires consideration of biases, alternative realities, and emotional effects. Responsible development is crucial to address these ethical concerns in AI-curated mixed realities.

Citation: Monika Manolova. (2021). Ethical Risks in the Cross Section of Extended Reality (XR), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and Artificial Intelligence (AI). In I. Vasiliu-Feltes & J. Thomason (Eds.), Applied ethics in a digital world. IGI Global.

"Digital Ethics: Digitizing the Dead, Designing Augmented and Virtual Realities, and Decolonizing the Museum"

Media type: Book chapter

Author: Meryl Shriver-Rice, Sarah Hiepler

Summary: The book explores ethical considerations in the digital realm. It delves into topics such as the ethical implications of digitizing deceased individuals, the design of augmented and virtual realities, and the decolonization of museums. The book examines the ethical challenges and opportunities that arise from these areas and provides insights into responsible practices and considerations for digital technologies

Citation: Shriver-Rice, M., & Hiepler, S. (2023). Digital Ethics: Digitizing the Dead, Designing Augmented and Virtual Realities, and Decolonizing the Museum. Wiley Blackwell.

"In-Depth Review of Augmented Reality: Tracking Technologies, Development Tools, AR Displays, Collaborative AR, and Security Concerns"

Media type: Journal article

Author: Toqeer Ali Syed, Muhammad Shoaib Siddiqui, Hurria Binte Abdullah, Salman Jan, Abdallah Namoun, Ali Alzahrani, Adnan Nadeem Al Hassan, Ahmad Alkhodre

Summary: The paper discusses the growing popularity of augmented reality (AR) and its various components, including tracking technologies, display technologies, and authoring tools. It also explores collaborative AR (CAR) and highlights the lack of security solutions in this area, specifically in distributed trust management. To address this issue, the authors propose a trusted CAR architecture focused on tourism, which can serve as a model for secure AR-based remote communication sessions. The study provides a comprehensive review, offering insights for researchers and business transformations while emphasizing the need for secure solutions in CAR.

Citation: Syed, T. A., Siddiqui, M. S., Abdullah, H. B., Jan, S., Namoun, A., Alzahrani, A., Nadeem, A., & Alkhodre, A. B. (2022). In-depth review of augmented reality: Tracking technologies, development tools, AR displays, collaborative AR, and security concerns. Sensors, 23(1), 146.

"The Metaverse: Never Too Soon to Discuss Ethics"

Media type: Blog article

Author: Merav Ozair

Summary: Metaverse is expected to rely on blockchain technology, digital assets like NFTs, AI, and IoT for seamless communication and monetization. Major tech companies like Meta (formerly Facebook), Microsoft, Qualcomm, Alibaba, and ByteDance are making substantial investments in metaverse development. While the exact impact is unknown, the metaverse presents opportunities, risks, and ethical concerns. Building ethical frameworks from the beginning is crucial, ensuring trust and addressing issues like privacy, inequality, accessibility, and identity control. A decentralized metaverse based on blockchain and DAOs could foster universal communities with shared ethical standards.

Citation: Ozair, M. (2022, July 12). The Metaverse: Never Too Soon to Discuss Ethics. Nasdaq. Retrieved July 17, 2023, from

"AI Ethics as Applied Ethics"

Media type: Research paper

Authors: Jaana Hallamaa, Taina Kalliokoski

Summary: The paper argues for a more robust and influential approach to AI ethics by adopting tools and approaches from other fields of study. While various suggestions for AI ethics exist, their impact has been limited. The authors suggest that one reason for this limited influence is the current conception of applied ethics in AI.

To address this, the paper proposes looking to bioethics as a point of reference for AI ethics. By considering metaethical and methodological approaches from bioethics, AI ethics can be made more methodologically sound and substantively influential.

The authors suggest adopting tools such as systems theory, safety research, impact assessment approach, and theory of change from other fields. These tools can help improve the quality of human action in AI development and safeguard desired outcomes.

By enriching AI ethics with these resources, the paper argues that designers and practitioners will have a stronger foundation for ethical decision-making and a more significant impact on the development and deployment of AI technologies.

Citation: Hallamaa, J., & Kalliokoski, T. (2022). AI Ethics as Applied Ethics. Frontiers in Computer Science, 4.

"Toward an Ethics of AI Belief"

Media type: Research paper

Author: Winnie Ma, Vincent Valton

Summary: The paper argues for the need to explore a new area of philosophical research in AI - the epistemology of AI, specifically focusing on an ethics of belief for AI. The authors, an ethicist of belief and a machine learning scientist, suggest that the current philosophical research in AI has mainly centered around the ethics of AI, and now it's crucial to delve into the epistemological aspects.

They define the ethics of belief as a sub-field within epistemology concerned with examining the moral, practical, and other non-alethic dimensions of belief. The authors prioritize the normative question of what agents, both human and artificial, should believe rather than descriptive questions about evaluative standards like truth, justification, or knowledge.

The paper identifies four topics from existing work in the ethics of human belief that can be applied to the ethics of AI belief: doxastic wronging by AI, morally owed beliefs, pragmatic and moral encroachment on AI beliefs, and moral responsibility for AI beliefs. They also highlight the nascent area of research in epistemic injustice and AI, which has moral and practical dimensions but hasn't been recognized as part of the ethics of AI belief.

By exploring these topics and considering the ethical dimensions of AI beliefs, the authors aim to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of AI's epistemological and ethical implications. This research can guide discussions on how AI systems should form beliefs and the moral responsibilities associated with their beliefs.

Citation: Ma, W., & Valton, V. (2023). Toward an Ethics of AI Belief. Preprint:2304.14577.

"Reflections on Putting AI Ethics into Practice: How Three AI Ethics Approaches Conceptualize Theory and Practice"

Media type: Research paper

Author: Hannah Bleher (University of Bonn), Matthias Braun (University of Bonn)

Summary: The article examines current applied ethics approaches to artificial intelligence (AI) and addresses the criticism that they are too principles-oriented and have a theory-practice gap. The three approaches explored are the embedded ethics approach, the ethically aligned approach, and the Value Sensitive Design (VSD) approach.

The authors analyze each approach's understanding and conceptualization of theory and practice. The embedded ethics approach focuses on context but risks bias. Ethically aligned approaches are principles-oriented but lack justification theories for handling trade-offs between competing principles. The VSD approach incorporates stakeholder values but needs to be linked to political, legal, or social governance aspects.

Based on critical theory, the authors propose a meta-framework for applied AI ethics with three dimensions. Firstly, they suggest including affects and emotions in the ethical decision-making process to consider vulnerabilities, experiences of disregard, and marginalization. Secondly, justifying normative background theories can provide standards and criteria for prioritizing or evaluating competing principles in cases of conflict. Thirdly, reflecting the governance dimension helps reveal power structures and ensures ethical AI by combining social, legal, technical, and political concerns.

The meta-framework acts as a reflective tool to understand and assess the theory-practice conceptualizations within AI ethics approaches. It aims to address the blind spots of existing approaches and support the development of more comprehensive and robust ethical frameworks for AI.

Citation: Bleher, H., & Braun, M. (2023). Reflections on putting AI ethics into practice: How three AI ethics approaches conceptualize theory and practice. Science and Engineering Ethics, 29(3).

"The Rise of AI Ethics"

Media type: Book chapter

Author: Paula Boddington

Summary: This chapter provides an overview of the current state of AI ethics, discussing its main themes and the factors that have shaped its development. The chapter introduces the key value issues in AI ethics, such as freedom and autonomy, justice and fairness, transparency and explanation, beneficence and nonmaleficence, responsibility, privacy, trust, sustainability, dignity, and solidarity. For each value issue, brief case studies are presented along with exercises to prompt critical thinking and further exploration.

The chapter highlights the importance of understanding historical concerns about technology to shed light on current apprehensions regarding AI. It briefly examines historical concerns related to robots, writing, machines, data and statistics, and earlier computing technologies that preceded specific concerns about AI.

Additionally, the chapter discusses the current state of AI ethics, including efforts to implement ethical guidance in policies and practices. It also presents a case study on indigenous AI protocols, emphasizing the value of diverse perspectives in shaping ethical considerations in AI.

Citation: Boddington, P. (2023). The Rise of AI Ethics. In AI Ethics (pp. 35-89).

"Future of Extended Reality"

Media type: White paper

Author: KPMG

Summary: This report highlights the growing interest and adoption of extended reality (XR) technologies, which immerse users in new virtual worlds. The authors believe that the industry is at a crucial turning point and emphasize the importance of businesses taking action now. The report includes interviews with global experts and industry leaders who share their thoughts on the future of XR, its impact on businesses, and its connection to the popular concept of the metaverse. While the industry is rapidly evolving, the report aims to capture key themes, predictions, and insights for business leaders to make informed decisions and take advantage of the opportunities presented by XR.

Citation: Future of Extended Reality. (2022). KPMG.

"XR Ethics Manifesto"

Citation: Kent Bye. (2019, November 5). XR Ethics Manifesto [Video]. YouTube.

"Manipulating the Mind - The Ethical Limits of Virtual Reality - Cortney Harding #TOA17"

Citation: Tech Open Air. (2017, August 10). Manipulating the Mind - The Ethical Limits of Virtual Reality - Cortney Harding #TOA17 [Video]. YouTube.

"The Ethics of VR (video)"

Citation: Moody College of Communication. (2018, April 18). Media Ethics Initiative: The Ethics of Virtual Reality [Video]. YouTube.

Data Privacy & Policy

"A Survey on Metaverse: Fundamentals, Security, and Privacy"

Media type: Research article (IEEE)

Author: Yuntao Wang; Zhou Su; Ning Zhang; Rui Xing; Dongxiao Liu; Tom H. Luan; Xuemin Shen

Summary: The article delves into the technical components and infrastructure required to build a metaverse, including network architecture, communication protocols, and distributed systems. It emphasizes the importance of interoperability and standardization to enable seamless interaction across different metaverse platforms.

Security and privacy challenges in the metaverse are addressed in depth. The authors identify potential threats such as identity theft, data breaches, and malicious activities. They discuss security measures such as access control, encryption, and authentication to safeguard user data and prevent unauthorized access.

Privacy concerns in the metaverse are also explored, focusing on issues such as data collection, user tracking, and information disclosure. The article examines privacy-enhancing technologies like anonymization, pseudonymization, and privacy-preserving algorithms that can be employed to protect users' personal information.

The survey further highlights the legal and regulatory aspects of the metaverse, discussing intellectual property rights, content moderation, and user responsibilities. It acknowledges the need for clear guidelines and policies to address legal and ethical concerns in this evolving virtual environment.

Key takeaways:

  • The article mentions the importance of standardized protocols that enable interoperability between different metaverse platforms. These protocols allow users from various virtual worlds to communicate, collaborate, and share resources seamlessly. So the user believes that they are consenting to share data with only one platform, but the data is actually distributed along the web using the same consent.

  • There is a high need for open standards and protocols to enable cross-platform compatibility, allowing users to seamlessly transition between different metaverse environments without facing barriers or limitations.

  • Though the metaverse is intended to be 'immersive', the basic architecture of it makes it 'intrusive', especially when users are unaware of the extent of data collection

  • The complex and interconnected nature of virtual environments can make it challenging for users to understand and manage how their information is being collected, used, and shared. This lack of control and transparency can contribute to a perception of intrusiveness. For instance, virtual behavior would be very different if the user is alert and aware that all their actions are being monitored, but if data collection is concealed as "necessary movement" (like purposeful actions in games), then a user would be more likely to explore since they would want to match what is expected out of them.

  • A psychological study that explored the effects of "being watched" on inhibitory control suggested that knowing that someone was watching them made it easier for them to control their impulses, even when they saw something that would normally make it harder. Interestingly, there was no change in the participants' response time after making a mistake, so it wasn't just that they were trying to be more careful. These results show that the combination of strong emotions and impulse control depends on how self-conscious we feel. It also suggests that even the presence of a webcam, as a symbol of being watched, can affect how well we perform on tasks that require self-control. Compare this to XR. If a user is aware of "being watched", their natural reaction would be to be more self-conscious, have higher control over their logical/analytical mind, and have a greater tendency to suppress emotional impulses. So data collected about users may not necessarily suggest what a user 'wants' to do, but what 'he is doing because he is expected to do that'.

  • This gets an ethical question of power - who gets to decide what a user should be doing in XR? Who decides the purpose of their actions? Does it not put the owner of the XR space in a higher power position than the user?

Citation: Wang, Y., Su, Z., Zhang, N., Xing, R., Liu, D., Luan, T. H., & Shen, X. (2023). A survey on Metaverse: Fundamentals, security, and privacy. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 25(1), 319-352.

"Four ethical priorities for neurotechnologies and AI"

Media type: Journal article

Authors: [Journal: nature]

Rafael Yuste, Sara Goering, Blaise Agüera y Arcas, Guoqiang Bi, Jose M. Carmena, Adrian Carter, Joseph J. Fins, Phoebe Friesen, Jack Gallant, Jane E. Huggins, Judy Illes, Philipp Kellmeyer, Eran Klein, Adam Marblestone, Christine Mitchell, Erik Parens, Michelle Pham, Alan Rubel, Norihiro Sadato, Laura Specker Sullivan, Mina Teicher, David Wasserman, Anna Wexler, Meredith Whittaker & Jonathan Wolpaw

Summary: The article emphasizes key ethical considerations in the development and use of neurotechnologies and artificial intelligence (AI). The four priorities outlined are privacy, agency and identity, bias and fairness, and ethical responsibility. The authors highlight the need for protecting individuals' neural data privacy, preserving human agency and personal identity, addressing bias and promoting fairness, and integrating ethical responsibility into the development and deployment of these technologies. By addressing these priorities, they aim to ensure responsible innovation and mitigate potential risks associated with neurotechnologies and AI.

Key takeaways:

  • People could end up behaving in ways that they struggle to claim as their own, if machine learning and brain-interfacing devices enable faster translation between an intention and an action, perhaps by using an 'auto-complete' or 'auto-correct' function. If people can control devices through their thoughts across great distances, or if several brains are wired to work collaboratively, our understanding of who we are and where we are acting will be disrupted.

  • One of the biggest concerns in brain-machine interactions is that machines can translate signals of the brain but not signals of the mind. For instance, inhibitory control is more of a 'mind-game' and heavily depends on the person's understanding of 'right' and 'wrong' in the society that they are a part of. In the case of a machine translating this, the impulse would be picked up by the machine and translated into an action as soon as it is picked up, not giving the human the time, choice or authority to control every impulse of theirs.

  • Illustrating this prediction from the article: --- who is to blame? the person, the machine or the interaction between the person and the machine?

    • "Consider the following scenario. A paralysed man participates in a clinical trial of a brain–computer interface (BCI). A computer connected to a chip in his brain is trained to interpret the neural activity resulting from his mental rehearsals of an action. The computer generates commands that move a robotic arm. One day, the man feels frustrated with the experimental team. Later, his robotic hand crushes a cup after taking it from one of the research assistants, and hurts the assistant. Apologizing for what he says must have been a malfunction of the device, he wonders whether his frustration with the team played a part. This scenario is hypothetical. But it illustrates some of the challenges that society might be heading towards."

  • The article suggests that neural data should be treated similarly to organs or tissues, where explicit consent is required to share the data. Regulations should be implemented to strictly control the sale, commercial transfer, and use of neural data. Safeguards such as differential privacy, federated learning, blockchain-based techniques, and open-data formats can be employed to protect user privacy and ensure transparency. These measures aim to address privacy concerns and prevent unauthorized use of neural data.

  • A 2016 study highlights the case of a person using brain stimulation for depression treatment experienced uncertainty about their actions and questioned their own identity. As neurotechnologies advance, they could blur the line between an individual's intentions and their actions, potentially affecting personal responsibility. The article suggests that individual identity and agency should be protected as basic human rights, proposing the inclusion of "neurorights" in international treaties. The creation of an international convention and a United Nations working group is recommended to address prohibited actions related to neurotechnology. Additionally, it emphasizes the importance of educating individuals about the cognitive and emotional effects of these technologies.

  • The article also discusses the possibility of changing societal norms, issues of equitable access, and new forms of discrimination arising from the pressure to adopt these technologies. There is a concern about an augmentation arms race, particularly in military settings, where enhanced mental abilities could be used. The authors recommend the establishment of international and national guidelines to set limits on the implementation of augmenting neurotechnologies and define their appropriate contexts. Culture-specific regulatory decisions should be made while respecting universal rights. The article suggests drawing on precedents of international consensus and public opinion incorporation in scientific decision-making, such as treaties on chemical and biological weapons and the establishment of commMattissions for atomic energy. Strict regulation of neural technology for military purposes is also proposed, preferably through a global moratorium led by the United Nations.

Citation: Yuste, R., Goering, S., Arcas, B. et al. Four ethical priorities for neurotechnologies and AI. Nature 551, 159–163 (2017).

"The Future Is Now: Wrestling with Ethics, Policy and Brain-Computer Interfaces"

Media type: Blog article

Author: Matt Shipman (North Carolina State University)

Summary: The article discusses a new book called "Policy, Identity, and Neurotechnology: The Neuroethics of Brain-Computer Interfaces" that explores the ethical and policy issues surrounding brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). BCIs are technologies that can read and translate brain activity into computer-readable formats. The book examines the ethical questions raised by BCIs, such as user safety, changes in personal identity, and social implications. It also considers the policy challenges associated with regulating BCI technologies and offers recommendations for the future. The authors emphasize the need for ongoing awareness of the rapid advancements in BCI technology and the potential societal impact of widespread adoption.

Key takeaways:

  • Technological advances in healthcare is resulting in a surrender to technology instead of dependence on technology. In the case of dependence, power is equally distributed in the relationship. In case of surrender, all the power lies at the mercy of the technological equipment, and ultimately the owner or controller of the data collected.

Citation: Shipman, M. (2023, April 28). The future is now: Wrestling with ethics, policy and brain-computer interfaces. NC State News. Retrieved June 28, 2023, from

"When “I” becomes “We”: ethical implications of emerging brain-to-brain interfacing technologies"

Media type: Journal article

Summary: The article "When 'I' becomes 'We': ethical implications of emerging brain-to-brain interfacing technologies" explores the ethical considerations surrounding the development and use of brain-to-brain interfacing technologies. These technologies enable direct communication and information transfer between individuals' brains, potentially blurring the boundaries of individual identity and agency. The article highlights several key ethical concerns related to privacy, consent, autonomy, and potential societal impacts.

Key takeaways:

  • One major ethical concern is the preservation of privacy and mental integrity. Brain-to-brain interfacing could allow access to an individual's private thoughts, emotions, and memories, raising concerns about unauthorized access, manipulation, or misuse of personal information. The article emphasizes the importance of ensuring robust security measures and strict consent protocols to protect individuals' privacy and mental autonomy.

  • Consent and agency are also crucial issues. The ability to interface brains raises questions about whether individuals can truly give informed consent to participate in such interactions. There is a need to establish clear guidelines and frameworks to ensure that consent is freely given and that individuals maintain control over their own cognitive processes.

  • Additionally, the blurring of individual boundaries in brain-to-brain interfacing raises concerns about personal autonomy and the potential for coercion. The article underscores the importance of preserving individual agency and preventing situations where one person's thoughts or actions could be controlled or manipulated by another through brain interfaces.

  • Societal implications are another area of concern. The widespread adoption of brain-to-brain interfacing could lead to significant social changes and inequalities. The technology may exacerbate existing disparities, with potential implications for education, employment, and communication. It is essential to address these potential impacts and ensure equitable access and distribution of the technology to prevent further marginalization.

Citation: Trimper, J. B., Wolpe, P. R., & Rommelfanger, K. S. (2014). When “I” becomes “We”: Ethical implications of emerging brain-to-brain interfacing technologies. Frontiers in Neuroengineering, 7.

"Security for Metaverse: Blockchain and Machine Learning Techniques for Intrusion Detection"

Media type: Research paper

Authors: Vu Truong (University of Da nang), Long Bao Le

Summary: The paper proposes a security approach for the Metaverse using blockchain and machine learning techniques for intrusion detection. They advocate leveraging blockchain's decentralized nature to enhance data integrity and transparency, while employing machine learning algorithms to detect and prevent intrusions in the virtual environment. By combining these technologies, their approach aims to provide a robust and efficient security framework to safeguard users' interactions and data within the Metaverse.

Citation: Truong, V., & Le, L. B. (2023). Security for the Metaverse: Blockchain and machine learning techniques for intrusion detection.

"A Novel Attack Detection Technique to Protect AR-based IoT Devices"

Media type: Book chapter

Authors: Kwok Tai Chui, Varsha Arya, Dragan Perakovic (University of Zagreb Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences), Wadee S. Alhalabi (King Abdulaziz University - Effat University)

Summary: The chapter gives a novel attack detection technique to safeguard AR-based IoT devices from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. Their approach, presented at the International Conference on Cyber Security, Privacy, and Networking (ICSPN 2022), aims to enhance the security of Augmented Reality (AR) integrated IoT devices. The technique employs advanced detection mechanisms to identify and mitigate DDoS attacks, ensuring the seamless functioning and protection of AR-based IoT devices from potential threats in the network.

Citation: Chui, K. T., Arya, V., Perakovic, D., & Alhalabi, W. (2023). A Novel Attack Detection Technique to Protect AR-Based IoT Devices from DDoS Attacks. In N. Nedjah, G. M. Pérez, & B. B. Gupta (Eds.), International Conference on cyber security, privacy and networking (ICSPN 2022). Springer Nature.

"VR and AR Reality for Promoting Safety and Security"

Media type: Journal article

Authors: Joseph Ufiem Orji (Dalhousie University), Amelia Hernandez, Rita Orji (Dalhousie University), Biebelemabo Selema (Dalhousie University)

Summary: The authors conducted a systematic review exploring the applications of virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) for promoting safety and security. The study was presented at the 2022 IEEE 10th International Conference on Serious Games and Applications for Health (SeGAH). The researchers analyzed various VR/AR implementations and their impact on safety and security measures. They found that VR/AR technologies are promising in enhancing safety training, situational awareness, and risk assessment. These immersive technologies have potential applications in various domains, such as healthcare, education, and emergency response, providing innovative solutions to improve safety and security measures in different real-world scenarios.

Citation: Orji, J., Hernandez, A., Selema, B., & Orji, R. (2022). Virtual and augmented reality applications for promoting safety and security: A systematic review. 2022 IEEE 10th International Conference on Serious Games and Applications for Health(SeGAH).

"Secure and Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence-Extended Reality (AI-XR) for Metaverses"

Media type: Journal article

Authors: Adnan Qayyum, Muhammad Atif Butt, Hassan Ali, Muhammad Usman, Osama Halabi, Ala Al-Fuqaha, Qammer H. Abbasi, Muhammad Ali Imran and Junaid Qadir

Summary: The authors propose a concept called "Secure and trustworthy artificial intelligence-extended reality (AI-XR) for Metaverses." The paper discusses the integration of AI and extended reality technologies to ensure security and trustworthiness in virtual environments like the Metaverse. By combining AI and XR, the authors aim to develop robust solutions that enhance user safety, data integrity, and protection against potential threats within these immersive spaces. The article highlights the potential applications of AI-XR in creating secure and trustworthy Metaverses, fostering a safer and more reliable experience for users engaging with virtual realities.

Citation: Qayyum, A., Butt, M. A., Ali, H., Usman, M., Abbasi, O. H., Imran, M. A., & Qadir, J. (2022, October 24). Secure and trustworthy artificial intelligence-extended reality (AI-XR) for Metaverses. Semantic Scholar | AI-Powered Research Tool. Retrieved August 4, 2023, from

"Security and Privacy for Augmented Reality: Our 10-Year Retrospective (PDF)"

Media type: Research paper

Authors: Franziska Roesner and Tadayoshi Kohno

Summary: Roesner and Kohno (2021) present a 10-year retrospective on security and privacy for augmented reality (AR). The paper, presented at the 1st International Workshop on Security for XR and XR for Security (VR4Sec), examines the advancements and challenges in securing AR technologies over the past decade. The authors analyze the evolution of security and privacy concerns in AR applications, discussing potential threats, vulnerabilities, and privacy issues that have emerged. They also highlight the research efforts and solutions proposed to address these issues, shedding light on the importance of continued focus on security and privacy as AR continues to grow and become more integrated into our daily lives.

Citation: Roesner, F., & Kohno, T. (2021). Security and Privacy for Augmented Reality: Our 10-Year Retrospective. 1st International Workshop on Security for XR and XR for Security (VR4Sec).

"An Imperative – Developing Standards for Safety and Security in XR Environments"

Media type: Blog article

Authors: XRSI

Summary: The "Link Flight Trainer" from the 1920s paved the way for the development of XR technologies, which encompass virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality. VR offers immersive experiences improving knowledge retention and real-world performance, while AR enables interaction with virtual objects in the real-world context. As computing power advanced, XR saw rapid growth, particularly in entertainment and gaming. However, broader applications in various sectors have emerged in recent years. The paper explores the potential risks and rewards of XR and emphasizes the importance of safety, trust, and effectiveness. It discusses regulatory, certification, and community-led approaches to ensure widespread positive and secure XR experiences.

Citation: XRSI. (2021, February 25). An imperative - Developing standards for safety and security in XR environments - X reality safety intelligence (XRSI). X Reality Safety Intelligence (XRSI). Retrieved August 4, 2023, from

"Data Handling Process in XR"

Media type: Journal article

Author: Satu Rantakokko

Summary: The paper examines the data handling process in extended reality (XR) when delivering technical instructions. The paper focuses on XR technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality, and their application in providing technical instructions. It explores the challenges and considerations related to managing data in XR environments to ensure effective and accurate delivery of instructions. The study discusses data acquisition, processing, storage, and retrieval in XR systems, along with the importance of user interface design and data visualization. The paper offers insights into best practices and guidelines for optimizing the data handling process to enhance the overall user experience and instructional outcomes in XR-based technical communication.

Citation: Rantakokko, S. (2022). Data handling process in extended reality (XR) when delivering technical instructions. Technical Communication, 69(2), 75-96.

"A Cross-platform Metaverse Data Management System"

Media type: IEEE Paper

Author: Bohan Chen; Chengxin Song; Boyu Lin; Xin Xu; Ruoyan Tang; Yunxuan Lin; Yuan Yao; Joseph Timoney; Ting Bi

Summary: The paper presents a cross-platform Metaverse data management system in the context of the 2022 IEEE International Conference on Metrology for Extended Reality, Artificial Intelligence, and Neural Engineering (MetroXRAINE). The paper introduces a comprehensive system that addresses the challenges of handling data in the Metaverse, which encompasses virtual reality, augmented reality, and other extended reality technologies. The proposed system enables seamless data management across various platforms and devices within the Metaverse. It aims to improve data integration, storage, retrieval, and sharing, fostering a more efficient and coherent experience for users engaging with different Metaverse applications. The paper highlights the potential of their system to advance the development and accessibility of Metaverse technologies.

Citation: Chen, B., Song, C., Lin, B., Xu, X., Tang, R., Lin, Y., Yao, Y., Timoney, J., & Bi, T. (2022). A cross-platform Metaverse data management system. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Metrology for Extended Reality, Artificial Intelligence and Neural Engineering (MetroXRAINE).

"QoS Management for XR Traffic in 5G NR"

Media type: Journal article

Author: Sandra Lagén (CTTC Catalan Telecommunications Technology Centre), Biljana Bojović (CTTC Catalan Telecommunications Technology Centre), Katerina Koutlia (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya), Xiaodi Zhang

Summary: The paper takes a multi-layer system view to address the challenges of ensuring optimal QoS for XR applications in the 5G environment. The authors evaluate the end-to-end performance of their proposed QoS management system, which aims to provide efficient data delivery and reduced latency for XR traffic. By optimizing various layers of the 5G NR network, including radio access, transport, and application layers, the study demonstrates the potential to enhance the overall XR user experience and enable seamless and immersive XR interactions in 5G networks.

Citation: Lagen, S., Bojovic, B., Koutlia, K., Zhang, X., Wang, P., & Qu, Q. (2023). Qos management for xr traffic in 5g nr: A multi-layer system view & end-to-end evaluation. IEEE Communications Magazine, 1-7.

"Immersive Experience and XR"

Media type: Journal article

Authors: Simon Gunkel, Emmanouil Potetsianakis, Tessa E. Klunder, Alexander Toet

Summary: The article discusses recent advancements in extended reality (XR) technology, which have led to an increase in XR products and solutions in various industries. It highlights the complexity of meeting new architectural requirements for XR applications, which combine 3D geometric rendering and multimedia paradigms. The paper emphasizes the need for new metadata, media/game orchestration, and synchronization techniques to facilitate interactions between users, objects, and volumetric multimedia content. It presents functional blocks required in XR system architectures, bridging game engineering and multimedia streaming. The article also advocates for standardization efforts by organizations like Khronos, MPEG, and 3GPP to ensure interoperability and the successful integration of game and media paradigms in multiuser XR applications.

Citation: Gunkel, S. N., Potetsianakis, E., Klunder, T. E., Toet, A., & Dijkstra-Soudarissanane, S. S. (2023). Immersive experiences and XR: A game engine or multimedia streaming problem? SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, 132(5), 30-37.

"Privacy-preserving datasets of eye-tracking samples with applications in XR"

Media type: Journal article

Authors: Brendan David-John, Kevin Butler, Eakta Jain

Summary: The article discusses the advancements in virtual and mixed-reality (XR) technology, highlighting its potential impact on various fields like work, education, socialization, and entertainment. Eye-tracking data is crucial for novel interactions, animating virtual avatars, and optimizing rendering or streaming. However, the use of eye-tracking raises privacy concerns as it can lead to user re-identification. The study applied privacy definitions of it-anonymity and plausible deniability (PD) to eye-tracking datasets and compared them with the state-of-the-art differential privacy (DP) approach. The results indicate that both PD and DP mechanisms offer practical privacy-utility trade-offs, while $k$-anonymity performed best for gaze prediction retention.

Citation: David-John, B., Butler, K., & Jain, E. (2023). Privacy-preserving datasets of eye-tracking samples with applications in XR. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 29(5), 2774-2784.

"Privacy Concerns and Measures in Metaverse: A Review"

Media type: Conference Paper

Authors: Yavuz Canbay (Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University), Anıl Utku (Munzur University), Pelin Canbay

Summary: It creates a virtual world resembling the real one, where activities such as shopping, socializing, attending events, and gaming are conducted differently. Users' personal data is utilized to represent them in this digital world, raising privacy concerns. The paper concentrates on privacy issues in the Metaverse, suggesting measures to address these concerns and offering a detailed list of personal data collected and processed within the Metaverse environment.

Citation: Canbay, Y., Utku, A., & Canbay, P. (2022, October). Privacy Concerns and Measures in Metaverse: A Review [Paper presentation]. 2022 15th International Conference on Information Security and Cryptography (ISCTURKEY), Turkey.

"Mike Boland - Can XR Avoid the Privacy Missteps of the Past?"

Media type: Blog article

Author: Mike Boland

Summary: The article discusses the importance of establishing privacy standards in the Metaverse, a new internet application that integrates AI, VR, AR, XR, and blockchain technologies. Privacy concerns arise as personal data is used to create and maintain virtual representations of users in the Metaverse. The XR Safety Initiative (XRSI) advocates for pre-emptive action to develop privacy and security standards. Challenges in implementing these standards arise from the complexity and novelty of spatial computing, involving hardware, software, and silicon. XRSI aims to eliminate ambiguity in responsibility models and promote adoption through simplified communication and business incentives, ensuring a trustworthy and secure Metaverse experience for users.

Citation: Boland, M. (2022, October 10). Can XR avoid the privacy missteps of the past? AR Insider. Retrieved August 4, 2023, from

"Implications of XR on Privacy, Security and Behaviour: Insights from Experts (PDF)"

Media type: Research paper

Author: Melvin Abraham, Pejman Saeghe, Mark McGill, Mohamed Khamis

Summary: Abraham et al. (2022) explore the implications of XR (extended reality) on privacy, security, and behavior based on insights from experts. The study was presented at the Nordic Human-Computer Interaction Conference. The paper delves into the potential impacts of XR technologies on user privacy and security, as well as how these technologies may influence user behavior. Through expert opinions and perspectives, the authors provide valuable insights into the challenges and opportunities associated with XR's implementation and its effects on user interactions and digital experiences. The research sheds light on the importance of addressing privacy and security concerns while maximizing the benefits of XR in human-computer interaction contexts.

Citation: Abraham, M., Saeghe, P., Mcgill, M., & Khamis, M. (2022). Implications of XR on privacy, security and behaviour: Insights from experts. Nordic Human-Computer Interaction Conference.

"Impact of XR on Mental Health: Are We Playing with Fire?"

Media type: Research paper

Author: Benjamin Kenwright

Summary: Extended reality (XR) technology has transformative potential in revolutionizing mental health treatment and support. Using immersive virtual and augmented reality experiences, individuals can explore safe and controlled spaces for therapy and self-discovery. XR offers diverse possibilities, from calming natural environments to confronting past traumas in controlled settings. It allows for deeper self-understanding, coping strategy learning, and life skills practice in an engaging and effective manner. While XR's wonders are awe-inspiring, it's essential to acknowledge potential disadvantages due to the complexity and uniqueness of the human brain. The article highlights research on how XR experiences can impact brain regions related to attention and visuospatial skills, shaping behaviors and minds.

Citation: Kenwright, B. (2023). Impact of XR on Mental Health: Are we Playing with Fire? Preprint.

"VR to improve female health outcomes"

Media type: Journal article

Author: Payal Ghatnekar

Summary: The manuscript discusses the use of Extended Reality (XR) Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) in various healthcare pathways for education, training, and patient experiences. As XR HMDs become more accessible, it is crucial to document evaluation techniques, user engagement, and outcomes. The review includes findings from 104 clinical studies using XR HMDs, presenting different HMDs, XR interventions, and applications across medical pathways. The paper guides readers in evaluating antecedents and consequences of using XR and provides suggestions for improvement. It is a valuable resource for clinicians, academics, funding bodies, and hospital decision-makers seeking to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of XR HMDs and enhance XR evaluation practices in healthcare.

Citation: Ghatnekar, P. (2023). VR to improve female health outcomes: Review of use cases, technologies, content, research and evaluation practices, barriers, and solutions. Preprint.

"Using XR immersive learning to enhance environmental education"

Media type: Journal article

Author: Claudio Aguayo (Auckland University of Technology), Chris Eames (The University of Waikato)

Summary: Mixed reality (XR) environments offer significant potential for transforming educational practices. They allow for individualized learning experiences, sensory immersion, and embodiment, fostering self-determined learning and visualization of complex problems. The study explores the use of mobile learning, heutagogy, and free-choice learning in marine ecological literacy enhancement through a bring your own device (BYOD) XR intervention in a marine educational center in New Zealand. The findings demonstrate that XR affordances improve understanding of marine conservation science, promoting ecological literacy, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change. The implications include rethinking educational practices, incorporating haptic, sensorial, and embodied XR design for environmental education, and examining learning phenomena in real-to-virtual immersive environments.

Citation: Aguayo, C., & Eames, C. (2023). Using mixed reality (XR) immersive learning to enhance environmental education. The Journal of Environmental Education, 54(1), 58-71.

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